2007 Conference


2007 Conference Program

The topic of the 2007 Camden Conference was “Europe”


For most Americans, Europe is familiar, even taken for granted. So many of our cultural and historical roots lie in Europe, yet we have often ignored or overridden Europe as we have defined our role in the world.

The 20th annual Camden Conference, Europe, which took place February 23-25, 2007, took a closer look at Europe’s current trends, complexities, and global relations. The event also highlighted some lessons that Americans could be learning from European experiences and perspectives.

The program was as follows:

Friday Evening, Feb. 23

  • Keynote Address: David J. Calleo, Dean Acheson Professor and Director of European Studies, Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies “The U.S. and the E.U.: Dissonant Visions of the New World Order”

Saturday, Feb. 24

  • John R. Gillingham III, Professor of History, University of Missouri at St. Louis “Evolution and Achievements of the European Union
  • Ulrike Guérot, Senior Transatlantic Fellow, German Marshall Fund of the United States “Current Dynamics and Uncertain Future of the European Union”
  • Richard N. Cooper, Maurits C. Boas Professor of International Economics, Harvard University “Economic Realities and Prospects”
  • Nicholas Whyte, Independent Diplomat ( former Director of the International Crisis Group-Brussels) “The Balkans: Crucible for E.U. Foreign Policy.”
  • Janusz Bugajski, Director, Eastern Europe Project, Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, D.C.) “How New Members in Central and Eastern Europe Will Change the E.U.”
  • Jytte Klausen, Professor of Comparative Politics, Brandeis University “The Islamic Challenge: Politics and Religion in Western Europe”

Sunday, February 25

  • Dmitri Trenin, Deputy Director, Carnegie Moscow Center, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace “Issues and Anxieties Between Russia and Europe”
  • Ambassador Robert Hutchings, Diplomat in Residence, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University “Permanent Allies? Transatlantic Relations After the Crisis”

The moderator for the 2007 Camden Conference was James W. Warhola, Professor of Political Science at the University of Maine in Orono.

2007 Conference Speakers

The following speakers participated in the 2007 Camden Conference.


David J. Calleo

David J. Calleo is Dean Acheson Professor and Director of European Studies at Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C. Calleo has taught at Yale, Brown, and Columbia Universities as well as leading universities and study centers in Britain and Europe. Among his books are: Rethinking Europe’s Future (2001), The Bankrupting of America (1992), Beyond American Hegemony: The Future of the Western Alliance (1987), The German Problem Reconsidered (1978), America and the World Political Economy (1973), The Atlantic Fantasy (1970), Britain’s Future (1968), and Europe’s Future 1965).

Richard N. Cooper

Richard N. Cooper is Maurits C. Boas Professor of International Economics at Harvard University. He has written extensively on international economic policy including Economic Policy in an Interdependent World (1986), The International Monetary System (1987), and Environment and Resource Policies for the World Economy (1994) as well as some three hundred articles. He has previously served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Provost of Yale University, Under-Secretary of State for Economic Affairs under President Carter, and Chairman of the National Intelligence Council under President Clinton.

John Gillingham

John Gillingham is Professor of History at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He has spent the last two years as a Research Scholar at Harvard University. Gillingham is a leading historian of the formation of the European Union. Among his prolific publications on European topics Gillingham’s two most recent books are European Integration, 1950-2003: Superstate or New Market Economy (2003) and Design for A New Europe (2006).

Ulrike Guerot

Ulrike Guerot is currently a Senior Transatlantic Fellow with the German Marshall Fund of the United States. Her special areas of expertise are U.S. and European roles in international institutions and the development of a constitution for the governance of Europe. Dr. Guerot is widely published, has held research appointments in Germany, France, and the United States, and appears frequently as media commentator. She has followed closely the political rise of Angela Merkel, the current Chancellor of Germany. Her recent publications include “Europe Needs a Vision for the 21st Century” and “The Touch and Clout of Merkel and Rice.”

Dmitri Trenin

Dmitri Trenin is a Senior Associate and Deputy Director of the Moscow Center, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace as well as a Senior Research Fellow at the NATO Defense College in Rome. Trenin has wide experience in military and diplomatic assignments. His recent publications include “The Post-Imperial Project” and ” Russia Leaves the West.”

Jytte Klausen

Jytte Klausen is a Professor of Comparative Politics at Brandeis University. Her latest book is The Islamic Challenge: Politics and Religion in Western Europe (2005). She recently spoke on “Islam, Islamism, and Democratic Values” (2006).

Nicholas Whyte

Nicholas Whyte is with Independent Diplomat, based in Brussels. Formerly he served as European Program Director of the International Crisis Group, supervising ICG projects and publications focused upon areas of conflict such as the Balkans, Turkey, and Northern Ireland.

Hutchings, Robert 2010




Robert Hutchings

Robert Hutchings is Diplomat in Residence at the Woodrow Wilson School of Princeton University. Hutchings has served at the highest levels in both government and academic life; he has been Chairman of the National Intelligence Council; Advisor to the Secretary of State with rank of Ambassador; and Director for European Affairs with the National Security Council. Among his recent books is American Diplomacy and the End of the Cold War (1997).

Janusz Bugajski

Janusz Bugajski is director of the New European Democracies Project and Senior Fellow of the Europe Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Formerly a senior research analyst for Radio Free Europe in Munich, Bugajski has worked as a consultant on East European affairs for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Department of Defense, the International Republican Institute (IRI), the Free Trade Union Institute (AFL-CIO), the International Research and Exchange Board (IREX), and BBC television in London. Bugajski’s recent publications include His recent publications include: Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era (M.E.Sharpe, 2002) and Atlantic Bridges: America’s New European Allies (Roman and Littlefield, 2006).

James W. Warhola

James W. Warhola is Professor of Political Science at the University of Maine in Orono. He was recognized as Distinguished Maine Professor in 2002. He is the author of Politicized Ethnicity in the Russian Federation: Dilemmas of State Formation (1996) and A Primer on Comparative Politics (1988) as well as numerous articles on recent political developments and ethnic trends in Europe and Russia.

2007 Conference Booklist

The following books provide background information on the subject of the 2007 Conference.


Essential Reading

Free World

Free World: Why a Crisis of the West Reveals the Opportunity of Our Time by Timothy Garton Ash. Random House, paper, 2004, 304 pages.

“Britain may not be divided physically, but it lives culturally, economically and socially in a constant tension between Europe and America. And it’s divided politically between a Right which argues that our place is with America, not Europe, and a Left which claims the opposite. This is today’s English civil war. Both sides tell us we must choose between Europe and America. But how can we choose, when Britain has two faces pointing in opposite directions? Garton Ash argues that the beginning of national wisdom is to accept that this is who we are, that Britain faces both ways. What follows is, he says, a liberation, and a challenge. In this stimulating new book, Garton Ash examines how this has happened, and argues that Britain should resist choosing between Europe and America, but embrace a new role in harmony with both, and that instead of destructively bickering as we have for decades, we should be concentrating on grander and more durable aspirations for political freedom.” Ash is a British scholar and journalist. (From publisher’s description.)

Rethinking Europe’s Future

David P. Calleo, Richard C. Leone. Rethinking Europe’s Future, Princeton University Press, 2001. 424 pages.

Undaunted by the challenge of speculating about future developments, David Calleo does a masterful job of weaving the perspectives of history, economics, philosophy, and political science into a rich tapestry of forthright questions about Europe’s future and persuasive speculation about answers and possibilities. Rethinking Europe’s Future is a major reevaluation of Europe’s prospects as it enters the twenty-first century. Calleo has written a book worthy of the complexity and grandeur of the challenges Europe now faces. Summoning the insights of history, political economy, and philosophy, he explains why Europe was for a long time the world’s greatest problem and how the Cold War’s bipolar partition brought stability of a sort. Without the Cold War, Europe risks revisiting its more traditional history. With so many contingent factors–in particular Russia and Europe’s Muslim neighbors–no one, Calleo believes, can pretend to predict the future with assurance. Calleo’s book ponders how to think about this future. Calleo is Dean Acheson Professor and Director of European Studies at the Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at The Johns Hopkins University, and the keynote speaker for the 2007 Camden Conference. (From publisher.)

Design for a New Europe

John Gillingham. Design for a New Europe, Cambridge University Press, May 2006, paper, 298 pages.

“How did the process of European integration break down; how can it be repaired? In European Integration, 1950-2003, John Gillingham reviewed the history of the European project and predicted the rejection of the European constitution. The four chapters of this book subject today’s dysfunctional European Union to critical scrutiny in an attempt to show how it is stunting economic growth, sapping the vitality of national governments, and undermining competitiveness. It explains how the attempt to revive the EU by turning it into a champion of research and development will backfire and demonstrates how Europe’s great experiment in political and economic union can succeed only if the wave of liberal reform now under way in the historically downtrodden east is allowed to sweep away the prosperous and complacent west.” Gillingham is Professor of History at the University of Missouri, St. Louis. (Edited from publisher’s description.)

Chaos and Violence

Stanley Hoffmann. Chaos and Violence: What Globalization, Failed States, and Terrorism Mean for U.S. Foreign Policy, Rowman & Littlefield, November 2006, 224 pages.

Editor’s Note: This is a collection of 19 articles by Hoffman, including two titled, “U.S.-European Relationships” and “European Sisyphus.” Also, his opening chapters set the stage for understanding the issues Europe faces in a changing global environment. Note his book will be available in late November, 2006.

“Renowned for his compassionate and balanced thinking on international affairs, Stanley Hoffmann reflects here on the proper place of the United States in a world it has defined almost exclusively by 9/11, the war on terrorism, and the invasion of Iraq. A true global citizen, Hoffmann’s analysis is uniquely informed by his place as a public intellectual with one foot in Europe, the other in America. In this collection of essays, many previously unpublished, he considers the ethics of intervention, the morality of human rights, how to repair our relationship with Europe, and the pitfalls of American unilateralism.” (From publisher’s description.)


Tony Judt. Postwar : A History of Europe Since 1945, Penguin Press, 2005. Nearly 1,000 pages.

Editor’s Note: Judt’s book is especially welcomed by serious history buffs, but should also appeal to those of us who remember the “Old Europe” of earlier years and wonder how it has changed and how it must continue to change to meet the challenges of the “New World,” particularly as globalization continues apace and as Eastern Europe countries become more of what we now call “Europe.”

“This is the best history we have of Europe in the postwar period and not likely to be surpassed for many years. Judt, director of New York University’s Remarque Institute, is an academic historian of repute and, more recently, a keen observer of European affairs whose powerfully written articles have appeared in the New York Times, the New York Review of Books and elsewhere. Here he combines deep knowledge with a sharply honed style and an eye for the expressive detail. Postwar is a hefty volume, and there are places where the details might overwhelm some readers. But the reward is always there: after pages on cabinet shuffles in some small country, or endless diplomatic negotiations concerning the fate of Germany or moves toward the European Union, the reader is snapped back to attention by insightful analysis and excellent writing. Judt shows that the dire human and economic costs of WWII shadowed Europe for a very long time afterward. Europeans and Americans recall the economic miracle, but it didn’t really transform people’s lives until the late 1950s, when a new, more individualized, consumer-oriented society began to appear in the West. (From Publishers Weekly. Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.)

The Islamic Challenge

Jytte Klausen. The Islamic Challenge : Politics and Religion in Western Europe. Oxford University Press, 2006, 240 pages.

“Who are Europe’s Muslim leaders? How do they view Islamic integration into European society and polities? Based on 300 interviews with Muslim leaders, this innovative book tackles big questions to reveal what Muslim leaders in Europe really want and the myriad ways in which Islam can become a European religion

“The voices in this book belong to parliamentarians, city councillors, doctors and engineers, a few professors, lawyers and social workers, owners of small businesses, translators, and community activists. They are also all Muslims, who have decided to become engaged in political and civic organizations. And for that reason, they constantly have to explain themselves, mostly in order to say who they are not. They are not fundamentalists, not terrorists, and most do not support the introduction of Islamic religious law in Europe – especially not its application to Christians. This book is about who these people are, and what they want.” Klausen is from the Center for European Studies, Brandeis University, Boston. (From publisher’s description and Amazon.com.)

European Union and World Politics

Andrew Moravcsik. European Union and World Politics. Routledge, 2006, paper, 256 pages.

The European Union is a unique political experiment that challenges many of the prevailing assumptions about world politics. This new book examines the EU’s key role in global politics and how the continued success of European integration means that scholars may have to rethink international relations theory.

Moravcsik addresses many of the key issues facing the EU: some are the theories of European integration. legitimacy in the EU, European integration and national policies, human rights and international law, and transatlantic relations. (Edited from publisher’s description.)

Cousins and Strangers

Chris Patten. Cousins and Strangers: America, Britain, and Europe in a New Century. Times Books, 2006, 320 pages.

“Patten served as a member of Parliament and chairman of the Conservative Party, and he was the last British governor of Hong Kong. He also served as the European Commissioner for External relations from 1999 to 2004.

“He views the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the cold war as a watershed that has fundamentally altered transatlantic relations. His politics would probably define him as moderately conservative in American terms, and he displays great affection for the American people and their institutions. He mercilessly skewers America bashers from France and Britain as “political fatheads” who mask arrogant condescension behind a veneer of superior morality. But Patten does not minimize what he regards as a growing political and cultural divide between the U.S. and her supposed allies that the persistence of the cold war papered over.” (By Jay Freeman. Booklist, Copyright © American Library Association. All rights reserved.)

2007 Conference Articles

The articles below provide information and background on the subject of the 2007 Conference.


Future of Europe: Fairer, greener, more democratic?

In Short: MEPs and civil society representatives discuss ways forward for the EU to gain more support among its citizens. Their main message: a purely economic and technocratic Union is not enough

Background: The EP Committee on Constitutional Affairs, on 24 and 25 April organised a ‘European Forum for the Civil Society’ to break the current constitution deadlock and to use the ‘period of reflection’ to find ways forward for the European Union. On this basis, the MEPs exchanged views with representatives of green and social NGOs, pro-European and EU sceptic organisations, representatives of faith communities, cultural and educational associations and other organisations

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NATO in Transformation

The sudden end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union removed NATO’s primary objective, changing the nature of its security relationship with its European allies and dragging the organization into a decade of instability and uncertainty.

The 1990s presented peace-keeping and nation-building challenges in Bosnia and Kosovo, capping off with the new security threat of global terrorism. A new report by the Atlantic Council says that the transatlantic community has labored to adapt to these changes, their effectiveness hampered by operational and political gaps in the relationship between the European Union and NATO and a lack of commitment on the part of the United States.

Walter Slocombe, former Defense Department advisor and co-author of the report “Transatlantic Transformation; Building a NATO-EU Security Architecture,” said: “There is no way to describe NATO since the end of the Cold War as a success. But it has moved forward. If anything, its capacity for planning operations has increased since the end of the Cold War by virtue of experience.”

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Islam in Europe

Islam in Europe by Timothy Garton Ash. This review of two books, Murder in Amsterdam: The Death of Theo Van Gogh and the Limits of Tolerance by Ian Buruma, and The Caged Virgin: An Emancipation Proclamation for Women and Islam by Ayaan Hirsi Ali, appears in the October 5, 2006, edition of the New York Review of Books. Here’s the introductory paragraph:

“Earlier this year, I visited the famous cathedral of Saint-Denis, on the outskirts of Paris. I admired the magnificent tombs and funerary monuments of the kings and queens of France, including that of Charles Martel (“the hammer”), whose victory over the invading Muslim armies near Poitiers in 732 AD is traditionally held to have halted the Islamization of Europe. Stepping out of the cathedral, I walked a hundred yards across the Place Victor Hugo to the main commercial street, which was thronged with local shoppers of Arab and African origin, including many women wearing the hijab. I caught myself thinking: So the Muslims have won the Battle of Poitiers after all! Won it not by force of arms, but by peaceful immigration and fertility”

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Liberal MEP tables ‘Plan B’ for EU constitution

BRUSSELS – Over one year after the constitution was rejected in two referendums, ideas and plans are slowly emerging on how to revive the document with one influential MEP suggesting a new-look version should include articles on issues like climate change which are of direct concern to EU citizens. From EUObserver.com

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Opening up Fortress Europe

Opening up Fortress Europe by Jürgen Habermas

“As a student, I often looked from the other side of the Rhine over here to the seat of the four high commissioners. Today I enter the Petersberg for the first time. The historic surroundings recall the deep roots that the old Bundesrepublik sank into the Rhine and Ruhr landscapes. I was always proud of a homeland characterised by a civil spirit, a certain Rhine-Prussian distance from Berlin, an openness to the West and the liberal influence of republican France. From here, the Bundesrepublik achieved its goal of sovereignty only in conjunction with the political unification of Europe; we only achieved national unity within the European framework.The genius loci invites us to consider the irritating fact that this benedictory European dynamic is flagging today.

“In many countries, the return of the nation-state has caused an introverted mood; the theme of Europe has been devalued, the national agenda has taken priority. In our talk-shows, grandfathers and grandchildren hug each other, swelling with feel-good patriotism. The security of undamaged national roots should make a population that’s been pampered by the welfare state “compatible with the future” in the competive global environment. This rhetoric fits with the current state of global politics which have lost all their inhibitions in social darwinistic terms.”

Read the rest of this article in English by clicking the button below or here to read the article in German.

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Clash of Globalizations

Clash of Globalizations, by 2007 keynote speaker Stanley Hoffmann, appears in the July-August 2002 issue of Foreign Affairs. The journal’s summary of the article is as follows: “After September 11, the world risks being squeezed between a new Scylla and Charybdis. On one side, America is tempted to launch a dangerous, unilateral mission of robust intervention. But the alternative — resignation to fresh terrorist attacks and oblivion to the security threats posed by globalization — is no better.”

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The Foreign Policy the US Needs

The Foreign Policy the US Needs, by 2007 keynote speaker Stanley Hoffmann, appeared in the Aug.10, 2006, issue of the New York Review of Books. This is a long and thought-provoking review of three recent books on US foreign policy, America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama, Taming American Power: The Global Response to U.S. Primacy by Stephen M. Walt, and Diplomacy Lessons: Realism for an Unloved Superpower by John Brady Kiesling, with the addition of some of Hoffmann’s opinions on how the US should frame its foreign policy.

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The ‘War’ Should be Not Only a War

The ‘War’ Should be Not Only a War, an op-ed column by 2007 speaker Robert Hutchings, appeared in the Oct. 6, 2006, edition of the International Herald Tribune. The opening of the article reads as follows:

“The findings of the latest U.S. National Intelligence Estimate on trends in global terrorism have been read as a severe indictment of the Bush administration’s policies, particularly regarding Iraq. And so they are.

Surely, when all 16 of America’s intelligence agencies declare that the terrorist threat is spreading and intensifying, this should be reason enough for the country to seriously rethink the “war on terror.”

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2007 Conference Links

The following are links to informational, allied, and sister sites of the Camden Conference. For supporter and partner links for the current year’s conference, please visit our supporters or partners pages.